Scientific Publications & Links


Human Amniotic Fluid Allograft

“As a liquid allograft, amniotic fluid can be delivered in a unique form including injection into wounds or joint spaces.  Amniotic fluid is composed of a complex solution of growth factors, cytokines, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, hormones, electrolytes, hyaluronic acid, as well as other nutrients, which function to protect and cushion, modulate inflammation and enhance mobility in utero”.

  1. Underwood MA, et al. Amniotic fluid: not just fetal urine anymore. Journal of Perinatology. 2005;25(5):341–348. http://www.nature.com/jp/journal/v25/n5/full/7211290a.html
  1. Hui AY, et al. A systems biology approach to synovial joint lubrication in health, injury and disease. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine. 2012;4(1):15–37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21826801
  1. Burns C, et al. Cytokine levels in late pregnancy: Are female infants better protected against inflammation? Frontiers in Immunology. 2015;6:318. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00318/full

“In sixty-eight cases in which amniotic-fluid concentrate has been employed in the treatment of various pathological conditions of joints, the use of the fluid concentrate has not been attended by a single unfavorable reaction. Its action is probably both biological and mechanical. It speeds up a defense-repair mechanism within the joints. The results obtained have been impressive in intra-articular fractures, and encouraging in selected cases of atrophic arthritis, as well as in persistent joint effusions. It successfully prevents the formation of new adhesions after closed manipulation of joints. It is a valuable prophylactic after arthrotomy of any type. Its use both in soft tissues and in other serous cavities is suggested.”

“Though clinical data on amniotic fluid are limited, a number of cases have demonstrated that injection of amniotic fluid is safe and anecdotal results suggest that amniotic fluid reduces pain and promotes healing.”

  1. Shimberg M. The use of amniotic‐fluid concentrate in orthopaedic conditions. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: American Volume. 1938;20 (1):167–177. https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.72192/2015.72192.The-Journal-Of-Bone-And-Joint-Surgery20_djvu.txt

“Though clinical data on amniotic fluid are limited, a number of cases have demonstrated that injection of amniotic fluid is safe and anecdotal results suggest that amniotic fluid reduces pain and promotes healing.”

  1. Bhattacharya N. Clinical use of amniotic fluid in osteoarthritis: a source of cell therapy. In: Bhattacharya N, Stubblefield P, editors. Regenerative Medicine Using Pregnancy‐Specific Biological Substances. London: Springer; 2011. pp. 395–403. https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.72192/2015.72192.The-Journal-Of-Bone-And-Joint-Surgery20_djvu.txt

“Additional in vivo preclinical models have demonstrated that amniotic fluid promotes healing in a variety of applications including healing of wounds, burns, bone cartilage, tendon and nerves.”

  1. Bazrafshan, Ameneh et al. Activation of mitosis and angiogenesis in diabetes-impaired wound healing by processed human amniotic fluid. Journal of Surgical Research , Volume 188 , Issue 2 , 545 – 552. http://www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com/article/S0022-4804(14)00081-X/pdf
  1. Ozgenel GY, et al. Effects of human amniotic fluid on peritendinous adhesion formation and tendon healing after flexor tendon surgery in rabbits. Journal of Hand Surgery: American Volume. 2001;26(2):332–339. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11279581

“Protein and molecular characterisation of a clinically compliant amniotic fluid stem cell derived extracellular vesicle fraction capable of accelerating muscle regeneration through the enhancement of angiogenesis.”

  1. Mellows et al. Protein and molecular characterisation of a clinically compliant amniotic fluid stem cell derived extracellular vesicle fraction capable of accelerating muscle regeneration through the enhancement of angiogenesis – Stem Cells Development 2017 Jul 5. doi: 10.1089/scd.2017.0089. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28679310

“Amniotic cells are not quite as primitive as embryonic cells, yet maintain greater potential than most adult stem cells.”

  1. Dawn M. Dello et. al. Methods in Enzymology, VOL. 419 Extraembryonic and Perinatal Stem Cells- (Chapter 17) Amniotic Fluid and Placental Stem Cells, Copyright 2006, Elsevier Inc.  DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(06)19017-5. http://amniotictherapies.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Amniotic-Fluid-and-Placental-Stem-Cells.pdf

“Recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine.”

  1. Pipino C, Pandolfi A. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential. World Journal of Stem Cells. 2015;7(4):681-690. doi:10.4252/wjsc.v7.i4.681. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444609/

“Human AF contains factors that appear to minimize scarring, while hyaluronic acid, which is found in high levels in AF, can inhibit collagen synthesis. This hyaluronic acid-rich environment is due to a relative lack of hyaluronidase in AF and to the presence of hyaluronic acid-stimulating factor in AF. In one study looking at the effect of AF on proteases important to wound healing, human AF was shown to enhance collagenase activity, but to inhibit activities of hyaluronidase, elastase, and cathepsin.”

  1. Ozgenel GY & Filiz G. Effects of human amniotic fluid on peripheral nerve scarring and regeneration in rats.J Neurosurg 2003; 98: 371−377. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effects+of+human+amniotic+fluid+on+peripheral+nerve+scarring+and+regeneration+in+rats
  2. Gao X, Devoe LD & Given KS. Effects of amniotic fluid on proteases: a possible role of amniotic fluid in fetal wound healing.Ann Plastic Surg 1994; 33: 128−134 discussion 134−5) https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0028037865&origin=inward&txGid=396f5626c065262e04ee54edfb88cece